Facts about Colombia

Facts about Colombia

1. Geographically unique: Colombia is the only country in South America that has both Pacific and Atlantic coastlines. In addition, it is also the only South American country connected to North America (via Panama)

2. East and West: The Andes Mountains separate the populated low-lying coastal areas in the west with the almost uninhabited jungles in the east. The jungles cover 54% of Colombia’s land, but only house around 3% of the population

3. Mixed crowd: Colombians are a mixed race; around 20% are descended from Europeans, while only around 1% are indigenous Indians (who live in the jungles of the east). The largest group is the ‘mestits’ (58%), a mix of whites and Indians. In addition, there are also blacks (4%) and mulattos (14%), as well as mixtures of blacks and Indians (3%)

4. Isolation: Colombia’s population lives largely in separate clusters, largely due to the Andes Mountains separating the country into different areas. Some live in the coastal lowlands, others in isolated mountain valleys and the capital – Bogotá – is located in a desolate mountain basin at 2,640 meters above sea level.

5. Many natural resources: Colombia’s abundant natural resources are an important factor in the country’s economy. Colombia is responsible for a large part of the world’s emerald production, but gold, silver and platinum are also produced in significant quantities. Coal production is also the largest on the South American continent. In addition, the country is world-renowned for its coffee production. Oil is also available, but production is sabotaged by guerrilla groups, which hinders development and progress in this area

Fact: Colombia's natural resources include coffee, minerals, metals, oil, natural gas, timber and fish
Attribution: mckaysavage + szeke + cliff1066™ – Flickr.com

Fact: Colombia is rich in natural resources. Top: a coffee plantation, middle: a salt mine and bottom: an emerald

 

6. Early history: The oldest archaeological finds in Colombia date back to 20,000 BC. Around 10,000 BC, present-day Colombia was inhabited by indigenous tribes living in hunter-gatherer societies. In the first millennium BC, certain groups of the population began to develop a political system (Cacicazgo) where power was distributed in a kind of pyramid structure

7. Colonization: In the early 1500s, Spanish colonists arrived in Peru. Here the exploration and colonization of the country also began. The indigenous population (the Indians) was greatly reduced due to the violent colonization, but also due to foreign diseases such as chickenpox. In the 1600s, colonists began bringing slaves from Africa to Colombia

8. Independence: From the very beginning of Spanish colonization, there were several rebellions for independence – their small size made them insignificant and the larger ones were all put down. From 1810, however, power began to change hands and in 1819 Colombia finally gained independence from the Spanish under the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolivar

9. Civil wars: In the 1800s and 1900s, there were 3 civil wars in Colombia: The Colombian Civil War in 1860 – 1862, the Thousand Days War in 1899 – 1902 and La Violencia in 1948 – 1958. Together, the wars cost at least 300,000 lives (4,000, 100,000 and 150,000 – 300,000 respectively)

10. Drugs: Since the early 1980s, the Colombian government, in cooperation with the United States, has tried to combat the extensive drug trafficking originating from the country (partly due to its unique connection to North America via Panama). However, the drug cartels have responded with waves of violence against judges, newspaper editors, citizen representatives, etc. Despite several arrests of powerful leaders of the drug cartels, they remain an unruly force in Colombia

Fact: Colombia's landscape includes sea, mountains, rivers and rainforest
Attribution: Pedro Szekely + Edgar Jiménez – Wikipedia.org

In Colombia, you have access to the Pacific, Atlantic and Andes, as well as the rivers and rainforest of the Amazon

Geographic facts

  • Location: The northern part of South America. Peru has 2 coastlines: one towards the Caribbean Sea (between Panama and Venezuela) and one towards the North Atlantic Ocean (between Ecuador and Panama)
  • Country borders: 6,309 km
  • Coastline: 3,208 km (1,760 km towards the Caribbean Sea and 1,448 km towards the North Atlantic)
  • Climate: Tropical along the coasts and eastern plains; cooler in the highlands
  • Landscape: Flat low-lying coastal areas in the west and north, highlands in the center and lowland plains in the east. The Andes Mountains also run through the central, western and northern parts of the country
  • Lowest point: 0 m (Pacific Ocean)
  • Highest point: 5,775 m (Pico Cristobal Colon)
  • Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, salt, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds and hydropower
  • Largest city: Bogotá
  • Capital city: Bogotá
  • Total area (square kilometers): 1.140.619,05 (2021)
  • Land areas (km2): 1.127.197,64 (2015)
  • Urban areas (km2): 5.114,56 (2015)
  • Agricultural land (km2): 427.180,00 (2021)
  • Agricultural area (% of total area): 38,50 (2021)
  • Forest area (% of land area): 53,13 (2021)
  • Plant species (higher), endangered: 268,00 (2018)
  • CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita): 1,55 (2020)

Demographic facts

Population

  • Population density (people per km2 total area): 2,36 (2021)
  • Population of largest city: 46,43 (2021)
  • Population growth (annual %): 11.507.960,00 (2023)
  • Population, total: 0,41 (2023)
  • Population growth in urban areas (annual %): n/a
  • Population in urban areas (% of total population): n/a
  • Population in rural areas (% of total population): 23,24 (2023)
  • Population growth in rural areas (annual %): 9,59 (2023)
  • Etniske grupper: 58% mestits (a mix of indigenous Indians and whites), 20% white, 14% mulatto, 4% black, 3% mixed black-Indian and 1% Native American
  • Sprog: Spanish (the official language)
  • Religioner: 90% Roman Catholics and 10% others
  • Net immigration: 10,60 (2022)

Birth and death rates

  • Fertility rate, total (births per woman): 1,69 (2022)
  • Birth rate, gross (per 1,000 inhabitants): 13,92 (2022)
  • Teenage mothers (% of women aged 15-19 who have had children or are pregnant): 82,35 (2023)
  • Death rate, gross (per 1,000 people): 7,41 (2022)
  • Life expectancy at birth, women (years): 77,14 (2022)
  • Life expectancy at birth, men (years): 70,32 (2022)
  • Life expectancy at birth, all (years): 73,66 (2022)
  • Mortality caused by traffic accidents (per 100,000 inhabitants): 155,79 (2022)
  • Mortality, women (per 1,000 adult women): 15,40 (2019)
  • Mortality, male (per 1,000 adult males): 101,51 (2022)
  • Suicide rate, women (per 100,000 women): 195,55 (2022)
  • Mortality, infant (per 1,000 live births): 6,10 (2019)

Work, income and education

  • Wage earners, total (% of total labor force): n/a
  • Income share of the highest 10%: 43,50 (2022)
  • Income share of the lowest 10%: 1,00 (2022)
  • Unemployment, total (% of total labor force): 4,92 (2019)
  • Labor force, total: 26.003.385,00 (2023)
  • Workforce with basic education (% of the workforce): 51,77 (2023)
  • Labor force with medium education (% of labor force): 68,81 (2023)
  • Number of poor cf. national poverty limits (% of the population): 52.085.168,00 (2023)
  • Proportion of the population with moderate or severe food insecurity (%): 17,65 (2023)
  • School enrolments, primary school (gross %): 8,50 (2020)
  • Youth unemployment, all young people (% of total labor force aged 15 - 24): 52,90 (2022)
  • Young people not in education, employment or training, total (% of all young people): 17,40 (2015)
  • Literacy/literacy, total adults (% of population over 15): 286.294,07 (2022)

    Spending

  • Household (and NPIS) consumption expenditure (US$): 763.240.493.927,59 (2023)
  • Electricity consumption (kWh per inhabitant): 1.320,35 (2014)
  • Inhabitants using the Internet (% of the population): 72,80 (2022)
  • Mobile subscriptions (per 100 people): 58,00 (2018)
  • Number of smokers, total (over 15 years): 19,37 (2023)
  • Alcohol consumption per capita (litres of pure alcohol, expected estimates, +15 years): 0,78 (2023)

Business and tourism

  • Employers, total (% of total labor force): 2,88 (2022)
  • New companies (number of registrations): 2,26 (2022)
  • New businesses (new registrations per 1,000 inhabitants aged 15 - 64): -175.051,00 (2023)
  • Listed companies, total: 63,00 (2022)
  • Business conditions (0 = lowest grade to 100 = highest grade): -1,30 (2023)
  • International tourism, number of arrivals: 1.396.000,00 (2020)
  • International tourism, number of departures: 1.275.000,00 (2020)
  • Railway lines (total route kilometers): -1,30 (2023)
  • Railways, number of passengers transported (million passenger-kilometres): 104,83 (2022)

Health

  • Hospital beds (per 1,000 inhabitants): 1,71 (2018)
  • Suicide rate, men (per 100,000 men): 1,80 (2019)
  • Nurses and midwives (per 1,000 inhabitants): 81.834,00 (2022)
  • Doctors (per 1,000 inhabitants): 1,45 (2021)
  • Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population aged 15 - 49): 184,12 (2023)

Facts Colombia's economy

GDP and GNI

  • BNP (US$): 13,21 (2023)
  • GDP growth (annual %): 70,06 (2019)
  • GDP per capita (US$): 363.540.156.234,87 (2023)
  • GDP, KPP (US$): 0,61 (2023)
  • BNI (US$): 6.979,73 (2023)
  • GNI growth (annual %): 1.122.331.896.369,35 (2023)
  • Gross savings (% of GDP): 361.333.752.471,10 (2023)

Inflation, interest rates and consumer prices

  • Deposit rate (%): 19,01 (2021)
  • Lending rate (%): 11,74 (2023)
  • Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 24,55 (2023)
  • Consumer Price Index (2010 = 100): 184,12 (2023)

Trade and production

  • Trade (% of GDP): 36,31 (2022)
  • Vareeksport (US$): 10,89 (2023)
  • Vareimport (US$): 39.595.623.040,56 (2023)
  • Food exports (% of merchandise exports): 15,72 (2023)
  • Food imports (% of goods imports): 14,43 (2023)
  • Food Production Index (2004 - 2006 = 100): 110,64 (2022)
  • Index of animal production (2004 - 2006 = 100): 23,60 (2019)

Industry

  • Industry (including construction), value added (% of GDP): 2,29 (2023)
  • Industry (including construction), value added (US$): 10,79 (2023)
  • Industry, value added (% of GDP): 21,03 (2023)
  • Industry, value added (US$): 110,33 (2022)

Military

  • Armed forces, total: 428.000,00 (2020)
  • Military expenditure (% of GDP): 49.545.000.000,00 (2023)
  • Military Expenditure (US$): 62.797.000.000,00 (2023)

Others

  • Current health expenditure (% of GDP): 19,01 (2021)
  • Labor tax and contribution (% of company profit): 89.243.277.757,69 (2023)
  • Development Assistance (ODA) received per capita (US$): 3,08 (2022)
  • Social contributions (% of income): 9.937.702.304,66 (2022)