Facts about Madagascar

Facts about Madagascar

1. Name: The official name of Madagascar is the ‘Republic of Madagascar’. In the period 1975 – 1993 the country was called ‘Democratic Republic of Madagascar’

2. Size: At 587,041 km2, Madagascar is the world’s fourth largest island. Scientists believe that Madagascar separated from the African continent approximately 160 million years ago

3. Weather and climate: The combination of southeast trade winds and northern monsoons creates a warm rainy season from November to April. In May – October, the weather is generally cooler and drier

4. Cyclones: During the rainy season from November to April, destructive cyclones often occur. In 2004, Madagascar was hit by the worst recorded cyclone ever; 172 people lost their lives, 214,260 were left homeless and the damage amounted to more than USD 250 million.

5. Unique life: Because Madagascar has been separated from Africa for so long, many new animal and plant species have evolved here. Around 80% of the animals in Madagascar do not exist anywhere else on Earth. Many of the unique animal species in Madagascar are endangered because humans have destroyed over 90% of their natural habitats

Fact: There are six species of baobab trees in Madagascar
Attribution: Frank Vassen + wallygrom + HïLôqui – Flickr.com

Fact: There are 9 species of baobab trees in the world: 6 in Madagascar, 2 in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and 1 in Australia

 

6. Lemurs: There are approximately 50 different species of lemur, all of which live in Madagascar and a few surrounding islands. Lemurs are considered some of Madagascar’s most unique animals. Lemurs are scientifically classified as follows: Order = Primates > Suborder = Semi-monkeys > Infraorder = Lemuriformes

7. Languages: Malagasy and French are the two official languages of Madagascar. In addition, English is also spoken. Linguistically, Malagasy belongs to the Austronesian language family. It is related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages of Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines.

8. Early history: Humans arrived in Madagascar around 2,500 years ago, making the island one of the last major landmasses on Earth to be settled by humans. The first humans came from southern Borneo in outrigger canoes and numbered between 60 and 200 individuals. These people encountered Madagascar’s megafauna, which included elephant birds, giant fossae and giant lemurs. Around 600 AD, these settlers began cutting down the forests around the island’s central highlands

9. Later history: Between 600 and 800 AD, a group of Arabs arrived in Madagascar and around 1000 AD a Bantu-speaking group from southeast Africa arrived. Around 1500, the first Europeans arrived on the island. The Betsileo, Imerina and Sakalava became the dominant tribes on the island until the early 1800s, when the Malagasy Radama I was recognized (by a European country) as the first king of Madagascar

10. Today: France invaded Madagascar in 1883 and the island remained under French rule until 1959, when the country received its own constitution. Today, Madagascar is a semi-presidential multi-party representative democratic republic and one of the poorest countries in the world

Fact: Lemurs are some of the most unique animals in Madagascar
Attribution: insane photoholic + VisitingMadagascar + foilman + TonyParkin67 – Flickr.com

Lemurs are considered some of the most unique animals in Madagascar. Lemurs are semi-monkeys and thus closely related to sloths, fingered animals and indrians

Geographic facts

  • Location: An island in the Indian Ocean east of Mozambique in South Africa
  • Country borders: 0 km
  • Coastline: 4,828 km
  • Climate: Tropical along the coasts and temperate inland. Dry in the south
  • Landscape: Narrow coastal plains. A high plateau and mountains in the center of the country
  • Lowest point: 0 m (Indian Ocean)
  • Highest point: 2,876 m (Maromokotro)
  • Natural resources: Graphite, chromium, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, tar sand, gemstones, mica, hydropower and fish
  • Largest city: Antananarivo
  • Capital city: Antananarivo
  • Total area (square kilometers): 587.295,00 (2021)
  • Land areas (km2): 588.612,86 (2015)
  • Urban areas (km2): 1.660,59 (2015)
  • Agricultural land (km2): 408.950,00 (2021)
  • Agricultural area (% of total area): 70,29 (2021)
  • Forest area (% of land area): 21,34 (2021)
  • Plant species (higher), endangered: 1.111,00 (2018)
  • CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita): 0,10 (2020)

Demographic facts

Population

  • Population density (people per km2 total area): 3.699.900,00 (2022)
  • Population of largest city: 2,38 (2022)
  • Population growth (annual %): 29.611.714,00 (2022)
  • Population, total: 70,70 (2012)
  • Population growth in urban areas (annual %): 39,88 (2022)
  • Population in urban areas (% of total population): 4,09 (2022)
  • Population in rural areas (% of total population): 60,12 (2022)
  • Population growth in rural areas (annual %): 1,26 (2022)
  • Etniske grupper: Malay-Indonesians (Merina people and the related Betsileo people), Cotiers (mix of Africans, Malay-Indonesians, and Arabs [betsimisaraka, tsimihety, antaisaka, sakalava]), French, Indians, Creoles, and Comoros
  • Sprog: French and Malagasy are the official languages. In addition, English is also spoken
  • Religioner: 52% traditional faiths, 41% Christian and 7% Muslim
  • Net immigration: 0,13 (2018)

Birth and death rates

  • Fertility rate, total (births per woman): 31,92 (2022)
  • Birth rate, gross (per 1,000 inhabitants): 30,95 (2021)
  • Teenage mothers (% of women aged 15-19 who have had children or are pregnant): 31,10 (2021)
  • Death rate, gross (per 1,000 people): 7,10 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, women (years): 62,23 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, men (years): 64,49 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, all (years): 529.794,63 (2021)
  • Mortality caused by traffic accidents (per 100,000 inhabitants): 197,52 (2021)
  • Mortality, women (per 1,000 adult women): 270,72 (2021)
  • Mortality, male (per 1,000 adult males): 3,40 (2019)
  • Suicide rate, women (per 100,000 women): 7,60 (2019)
  • Mortality, infant (per 1,000 live births): -1.500,00 (2022)

Work, income and education

  • Wage earners, total (% of total labor force): 11,25 (2022)
  • Income share of the highest 10%: 2,20 (2012)
  • Income share of the lowest 10%: 19,73 (2021)
  • Unemployment, total (% of total labor force): 1,79 (2015)
  • Labor force, total: 66,87 (2021)
  • Workforce with basic education (% of the workforce): 73,65 (2015)
  • Labor force with medium education (% of labor force): 15.363.211,00 (2022)
  • Number of poor cf. national poverty limits (% of the population): 0,40 (2021)
  • Proportion of the population with moderate or severe food insecurity (%): 64,90 (2021)
  • School enrolments, primary school (gross %): 138,19 (2022)
  • Youth unemployment, all young people (% of total labor force aged 15 - 24): 3,44 (2015)
  • Young people not in education, employment or training, total (% of all young people): 3,79 (2012)
  • Literacy/literacy, total adults (% of population over 15): 121,00 (2018)

    Spending

  • Household (and NPIS) consumption expenditure (US$): 0,20 (2010)
  • Electricity consumption (kWh per inhabitant): 3,98 (2022)
  • Inhabitants using the Internet (% of the population): 87.100,00 (2020)
  • Mobile subscriptions (per 100 people): 29,20 (2019)
  • Number of smokers, total (over 15 years): 27,80 (2020)
  • Alcohol consumption per capita (litres of pure alcohol, expected estimates, +15 years): 1,02 (2019)

Business and tourism

  • Employers, total (% of total labor force): 3,85 (2021)
  • New companies (number of registrations): 0,29 (2018)
  • New businesses (new registrations per 1,000 inhabitants aged 15 - 64): 1.881,00 (2018)
  • Listed companies, total: 77,48 (2022)
  • Business conditions (0 = lowest grade to 100 = highest grade): 673,00 (2021)
  • International tourism, number of arrivals: 39.000,00 (1995)
  • International tourism, number of departures: 89,78 (2015)
  • Railway lines (total route kilometers): 673,00 (2021)
  • Railways, number of passengers transported (million passenger-kilometres): 10,00 (2007)

Health

  • Hospital beds (per 1,000 inhabitants): 33,50 (2012)
  • Suicide rate, men (per 100,000 men): 45,30 (2021)
  • Nurses and midwives (per 1,000 inhabitants): 0,20 (2018)
  • Doctors (per 1,000 inhabitants): 49,70 (2021)
  • Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population aged 15 - 49): 219,81 (2022)

Facts Madagascar's economy

GDP and GNI

  • BNP (US$): 13,38 (2022)
  • GDP growth (annual %): 47,73 (2019)
  • GDP per capita (US$): 15.297.192.798,98 (2022)
  • GDP, KPP (US$): 3,80 (2022)
  • BNI (US$): 516,59 (2022)
  • GNI growth (annual %): 52.550.614.922,27 (2022)
  • Gross savings (% of GDP): 14.877.686.480,44 (2022)

Inflation, interest rates and consumer prices

  • Deposit rate (%): 8,79 (2020)
  • Lending rate (%): 8,16 (2022)
  • Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 21,74 (2022)
  • Consumer Price Index (2010 = 100): 219,81 (2022)

Trade and production

  • Trade (% of GDP): 36,25 (2021)
  • Vareeksport (US$): 9,50 (2021)
  • Vareimport (US$): 1.382.224.818,45 (2021)
  • Food exports (% of merchandise exports): 18,84 (2022)
  • Food imports (% of goods imports): 103,76 (2021)
  • Food Production Index (2004 - 2006 = 100): 39.793.588.893,26 (2022)
  • Index of animal production (2004 - 2006 = 100): 20,30 (2019)

Industry

  • Industry (including construction), value added (% of GDP): 3,14 (2022)
  • Industry (including construction), value added (US$): 15,22 (2022)
  • Industry, value added (% of GDP): 48,83 (2022)
  • Industry, value added (US$): 92,66 (2021)

Military

  • Armed forces, total: 22.000,00 (2020)
  • Military expenditure (% of GDP): 3.609.000.000,00 (2022)
  • Military Expenditure (US$): 5.471.000.000,00 (2022)

Others

  • Current health expenditure (% of GDP): 8,79 (2020)
  • Labor tax and contribution (% of company profit): 3.325.618.441,57 (2022)
  • Development Assistance (ODA) received per capita (US$): 0,65 (2022)
  • Social contributions (% of income): 97.968.272,53 (2022)