Facts about Montenegro

National park Zabljak in Montenegro

1. National Day: National Day on July 13 marks the day in 1878 when Montenegro was recognized as an independent country at the Berlin Congress (as the 27th state in the world)

2. Name: The name ‘Montenegro’ literally means ‘black mountain’ and comes from the dark forested mountains that cover the country

3. Heights: Around 60% of the country is at more than 1,000 meters above sea level. The highest point is the Bobotov Kuk peak at 2,522 meters (although some sources claim that there are 3 higher peaks on the border with Albania)

4. World War I: The mountains have always been an essential part of Montenegro’s defense, helping to preserve the country’s independence until World War 1. World War I, where Montenegro suffered a major defeat to Austria-Hungary (in 1916)

5. Liberation: In 1918, the Allies liberated Montenegro from Austria-Hungary. At that time, Montenegro became part of Serbia and in 1922 it became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Fact: Montenegro's Tara Gorge is the second longest gorge in the world
Attribution: Milan B. – Wikipedia.org

Fact: The Tara Gorge in Montenegro is the longest canyon in Europe and the second longest in the world (only surpassed by the Grand Canyon in the US)

 

6. World War II : In 1941, during World War 2. During World War II, Mussolini invaded Montenegro and made it part of the Kingdom of Italy. Although Italian troops withdrew from the country in 1943, some German troops (who were allied with the Italians) remained until December 1944

7. SFR Yugoslavia: In 1943, the Socialist Republic of Montenegro was formed, which was 1 of 6 republics in the unified Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia). This lasted until 1992, when SFR Yugoslavia was dissolved and Serbia and Montenegro were united into the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

8. Serbia and Montenegro: In 2003, the constitution was amended and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed ‘Serbia and Montenegro’

9. Independence: On May 21, 2006, Montenegro gained full independence when the population seceded from Serbia in a referendum

10. Two capitals: Podgorica, with its 160,000 inhabitants, is Montenegro’s largest city and also the administrative capital (de facto). The city of Cetinje is the country’s 6th largest city and the country’s de jure capital. The situation with the two capitals is related to the fact that Cetinje is specified in the constitution as the country’s capital, has historically been the capital and still today houses a number of administrative institutions – but Podgorica is much larger and therefore in practice the real capital of Montenegro

Fact: Montenegro's landscape is characterized by a coastline with mountains
Attribution: Michael Tyler – Flickr.com | Einer flog zu Weit – Wikipedia.org

Montenegro’s landscape is characterized by forested mountains rising close to the long coastline. Pictured are the Bay of Kotor (top), a lake in Durmitor National Park (center) and the island of Sveti Stefan (bottom)

Geographic facts

  • Location: The southeastern part of Europe. Between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
  • Country borders: Albania (172 km), Bosnia and Herzegovina (225 km), Croatia (25 km), Kosovo (79 km) and Serbia (124 km)
  • Coastline: 293.5 km
  • Climate: Mediterranean climate. Hot dry summers and autumns. Relatively cold winters with lots of snow inland
  • Landscape: Highly meandering coastline with narrow coastal land that meets high, jagged limestone mountains and plateaus
  • Lowest point: 0 m (Adriatic Sea)
  • Highest point: 2,522 m (Bobotov Kuk)
  • Natural resources: Bauxite and hydropower
  • Largest city: Podgorica
  • Capital city: Podgorica (de facto), Cetinje (de jure)
  • Total area (square kilometers): 13.810,00 (2021)
  • Land areas (km2): 13.146,80 (2015)
  • Urban areas (km2): 294,65 (2015)
  • Agricultural land (km2): 2.555,60 (2021)
  • Agricultural area (% of total area): 19,00 (2021)
  • Forest area (% of land area): 61,49 (2021)
  • Plant species (higher), endangered: 3,00 (2018)
  • CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita): 4,07 (2020)

Demographic facts

Population

  • Population density (people per km2 total area): 46,04 (2021)
  • Population of largest city: -0,32 (2022)
  • Population growth (annual %): 617.213,00 (2022)
  • Population, total: 20,30 (2021)
  • Population growth in urban areas (annual %): 0,17 (2022)
  • Population in urban areas (% of total population): 78,94 (2022)
  • Population in rural areas (% of total population): 31,84 (2022)
  • Population growth in rural areas (annual %): -1,38 (2022)
  • Etniske grupper: 43% Montenegrins, 32% Serbs, 8% Bosnians, 5.3% Albanians, 3.7% unspecified (incl. Croats)
  • Sprog: 22% speak Montenegrin, which is the official language. 63% speak Serbian, which is therefore the largest language. The other languages are Bosnian (5.5%), Albanian (5.3%) and unspecified [including Croatian] (3.7%)
  • Religioner: 74.2% Orthodox, 17.7% Muslim, 3.5% Catholic, other 0.6%, unspecified 3% and atheist 1%
  • Net immigration: -480,00 (2023)

Birth and death rates

  • Fertility rate, total (births per woman): 1,75 (2021)
  • Birth rate, gross (per 1,000 inhabitants): 11,40 (2021)
  • Teenage mothers (% of women aged 15-19 who have had children or are pregnant): 10,34 (2019)
  • Death rate, gross (per 1,000 people): 14,80 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, women (years): 70,80 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, men (years): 73,82 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, all (years): 112,00 (2012)
  • Mortality caused by traffic accidents (per 100,000 inhabitants): 7,60 (2019)
  • Mortality, women (per 1,000 adult women): 67,55 (2021)
  • Mortality, male (per 1,000 adult males): 136,65 (2021)
  • Suicide rate, women (per 100,000 women): 10,40 (2019)
  • Mortality, infant (per 1,000 live births): 1,90 (2021)

Work, income and education

  • Wage earners, total (% of total labor force): n/a
  • Income share of the highest 10%: 24,70 (2021)
  • Income share of the lowest 10%: 2,10 (2021)
  • Unemployment, total (% of total labor force): 16,54 (2021)
  • Labor force, total: 77,00 (2021)
  • Workforce with basic education (% of the workforce): 56,82 (2020)
  • Labor force with medium education (% of labor force): 285.797,00 (2023)
  • Number of poor cf. national poverty limits (% of the population): 0,10 (2021)
  • Proportion of the population with moderate or severe food insecurity (%): 12,90 (2021)
  • School enrolments, primary school (gross %): 100,69 (2022)
  • Youth unemployment, all young people (% of total labor force aged 15 - 24): 68,16 (2022)
  • Young people not in education, employment or training, total (% of all young people): 21,09 (2020)
  • Literacy/literacy, total adults (% of population over 15): 98,98 (2021)

    Spending

  • Household (and NPIS) consumption expenditure (US$): 10.845.022.476,74 (2022)
  • Electricity consumption (kWh per inhabitant): 4.612,34 (2014)
  • Inhabitants using the Internet (% of the population): 88,22 (2022)
  • Mobile subscriptions (per 100 people): 203,17 (2022)
  • Number of smokers, total (over 15 years): 31,40 (2020)
  • Alcohol consumption per capita (litres of pure alcohol, expected estimates, +15 years): 36,96 (2021)

Business and tourism

  • Employers, total (% of total labor force): 3,94 (2022)
  • New companies (number of registrations): 3.270,00 (2020)
  • New businesses (new registrations per 1,000 inhabitants aged 15 - 64): 7,95 (2020)
  • Listed companies, total: 48.964,52 (2022)
  • Business conditions (0 = lowest grade to 100 = highest grade): 250,00 (2019)
  • International tourism, number of arrivals: 351.000,00 (2020)
  • International tourism, number of departures: 19,95 (2021)
  • Railway lines (total route kilometers): 250,00 (2019)
  • Railways, number of passengers transported (million passenger-kilometres): 27,80 (2020)

Health

  • Hospital beds (per 1,000 inhabitants): 3,86 (2017)
  • Suicide rate, men (per 100,000 men): 31,70 (2019)
  • Nurses and midwives (per 1,000 inhabitants): 5,68 (2021)
  • Doctors (per 1,000 inhabitants): 2,77 (2021)
  • Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population aged 15 - 49): 134,80 (2022)

Facts Montenegro's economy

GDP and GNI

  • BNP (US$): 0,29 (2022)
  • GDP growth (annual %): 73,82 (2019)
  • GDP per capita (US$): 6.229.801.580,79 (2022)
  • GDP, KPP (US$): 6,41 (2022)
  • BNI (US$): 10.093,44 (2022)
  • GNI growth (annual %): 17.482.292.014,11 (2022)
  • Gross savings (% of GDP): 6.353.915.367,08 (2022)

Inflation, interest rates and consumer prices

  • Deposit rate (%): 13,13 (2020)
  • Lending rate (%): 13,04 (2022)
  • Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 12,97 (2022)
  • Consumer Price Index (2010 = 100): 134,80 (2022)

Trade and production

  • Trade (% of GDP): 166,43 (2022)
  • Vareeksport (US$): 3,91 (2022)
  • Vareimport (US$): 243.416.873,84 (2022)
  • Food exports (% of merchandise exports): 9,00 (2022)
  • Food imports (% of goods imports): 22,24 (2022)
  • Food Production Index (2004 - 2006 = 100): 100,56 (2022)
  • Index of animal production (2004 - 2006 = 100): 13,40 (2019)

Industry

  • Industry (including construction), value added (% of GDP): 6,26 (2022)
  • Industry (including construction), value added (US$): 17,35 (2022)
  • Industry, value added (% of GDP): 5,64 (2022)
  • Industry, value added (US$): 107,95 (2022)

Military

  • Armed forces, total: 12.000,00 (2020)
  • Military expenditure (% of GDP): 742.000.000,00 (2022)
  • Military Expenditure (US$): 3.704.000.000,00 (2022)

Others

  • Current health expenditure (% of GDP): 13,13 (2020)
  • Labor tax and contribution (% of company profit): 807.712.773,79 (2022)
  • Development Assistance (ODA) received per capita (US$): 1,61 (2022)
  • Social contributions (% of income): 98.011.519,01 (2022)