Facts about Mongolia

Facts about Mongolia

1. Wildlife: Mongolia’s wildlife includes: camels, gerbils, eagles, horses (including Przewalski horses, the world’s last wild horse breed) and more than 50 unique fish species

2. Ulan Bator: The capital Ulan Bator (or Ulaanbataar) is Mongolia’s largest city and home to approximately 1.3 million inhabitants. The name ‘Ulaanbataar’ is a Mongolian word that literally means ‘red hero’. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic city that moved 3 times a year. It wasn’t until 1778 that the city was firmly anchored in its current location

3. Coldest capital city: With an average year-round temperature of -1.3 degrees Celsius, Ulaanbaatar is the coldest capital city in the world. This is mainly due to three things: 1) the city’s high altitude (1,350 m), 2) the city’s location several hundred kilometers from the sea and 3) the influence of the Siberian high pressure (anticyclone)

4. Oldest national park: Mongolia is home to the world’s oldest national park. It is called ‘Bogd Khan National Park’ and is located south of Ulan Bator. The park dates back to 1778.

5. Mongol Rally: Every year, the Mongol Rally is a motor race where participants start in Europe and drive to Ulan Bator. The traditional starting point is the Goodwood Circuit in the UK, but nowadays there are several European starting points and the race length is approximately 13-16,000 km. The rally is notorious for people using cars in poor condition and in recent years the Mongolian authorities have tightened the rules slightly to avoid accidents. The race also differs from other rallies in that there are no prizes, motor assistance, accommodation or other practical arrangements

Fact: The Genghis Khan statue sits on the world's tallest statue of a horse about 54 km from Ulan Bator
Attribution: bdearth + Mario Carvajal – Flickr.com

Fact: 54 km from the capital Ulan Bator is a 40 meter tall statue of Genghis Khan. He sits on the world’s tallest horse statue

 

6. Genghis Khan: Genghis Khan was a Mongolian Khan who united the Mongol tribes and established the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan’s real name was Temudjin Borjigin – ‘Genghis Khan’ (meaning “ruler of the world”) was a title bestowed on him by Mongol chieftains in 1206

7. The Genghis Khan statue: About 1 hour drive (54 km) from Ulan Bator, there is a 40 meter tall statue of Genghis Khan. The horse on which Genghis Khan sits is the world’s largest statue of a horse. Visitors can – via the horse’s chest and neck – enter the horse’s head, from where there are panoramic views of the 200 surrounding yurts (traditional round nomadic huts). The yurts are arranged in the same pattern that the Mongolian tribes used in the 13th century to brand their horses

8. Kublai Khan: Also called ‘the last of the Great Khans’, Kublai Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan. Kublai Khan unified China for the first time and founded the Yuan dynasty

9. Geography: The average altitude in Mongolia is 1,580 meters above sea level. The landscape includes many lakes, marshes, sand dunes, grasslands, coniferous forests and permanent mountain glaciers. Asia’s largest freshwater lake, Khövsgöl, is also located in Mongolia

10. Gobi Desert: Asia’s largest desert, the Gobi Desert, is located in southern Mongolia and northern China. The Gobi Desert was once an ocean, which explains the relatively high fossil abundance (many tourists take them home as souvenirs!). At 1.3 million km2, the Gobi Desert is the fifth largest desert in the world

Fact: Mongol Rally is a special motor race that starts in Europe and ends in Ulan Bator
Attribution: Tablecreation + Sam Greenhalgh + Santahul + HolidayExtras.com – Wikipedia.com

Fact: The Mongol Rally is a 13-16,000 km long motor race that starts in various locations in Europe and ends in Mongolia’s capital, Ulan Bator. The race is known for its many unsuitable vehicles

Geographic facts

  • Location: North Asia. Between China and Russia
  • Country borders: China (4,677 km) and Russia (3,543 km)
  • Coastline: 0 km (inland state)
  • Climate: Desert with a continental climate. Large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations
  • Landscape: Vast desert plains and semi-deserts, grassy steppes, mountains in the west and southwest. The Gobi Desert is located in the south central part of the country
  • Lowest point: 560 m (Hoh Nuur)
  • Highest point: 4,374 m (Nayramadlin Orgil)
  • Natural resources: Oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorite, gold, silver and iron
  • Largest city: Ulan Bator
  • Capital city: Ulan Bator
  • Total area (square kilometers): 1.564.116,00 (2021)
  • Land areas (km2): 1.549.425,13 (2015)
  • Urban areas (km2): 354,98 (2015)
  • Agricultural land (km2): 1.126.312,00 (2021)
  • Agricultural area (% of total area): 72,32 (2021)
  • Forest area (% of land area): 9,10 (2021)
  • Plant species (higher), endangered: 0,00 (2018)
  • CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita): 6,43 (2020)

Demographic facts

Population

  • Population density (people per km2 total area): 1.672.627,00 (2023)
  • Population of largest city: 1,50 (2022)
  • Population growth (annual %): 3.398.366,00 (2022)
  • Population, total: 27,80 (2020)
  • Population growth in urban areas (annual %): 1,71 (2022)
  • Population in urban areas (% of total population): 57,71 (2022)
  • Population in rural areas (% of total population): 31,07 (2022)
  • Population growth in rural areas (annual %): 1,03 (2022)
  • Etniske grupper: 81.9% khalkha-mongoler, 2.7% dorvod, 2.1% bayad, 1.7% buryat-bouriates, 1.2% zakhchin, 1% dariganga, 1% uriankhai, 4.6% andre
  • Sprog: Khalkha Mongolian 90% (the official language), Turkish languages, Russian
  • Religioner: 53% Buddhists, 3% Muslims, 2.2% Christians, 2.9% shamanists, 0.4% other, 38.6% none
  • Net immigration: 5,92 (2020)

Birth and death rates

  • Fertility rate, total (births per woman): 2,84 (2021)
  • Birth rate, gross (per 1,000 inhabitants): 21,41 (2021)
  • Teenage mothers (% of women aged 15-19 who have had children or are pregnant): 7,93 (2019)
  • Death rate, gross (per 1,000 people): 6,13 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, women (years): 66,54 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, men (years): 70,98 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, all (years): 602.805,67 (2022)
  • Mortality caused by traffic accidents (per 100,000 inhabitants): 105,87 (2021)
  • Mortality, women (per 1,000 adult women): 261,86 (2021)
  • Mortality, male (per 1,000 adult males): 5,40 (2019)
  • Suicide rate, women (per 100,000 women): 30,70 (2019)
  • Mortality, infant (per 1,000 live births): -850,00 (2023)

Work, income and education

  • Wage earners, total (% of total labor force): n/a
  • Income share of the highest 10%: 24,60 (2022)
  • Income share of the lowest 10%: 3,40 (2022)
  • Unemployment, total (% of total labor force): 6,21 (2022)
  • Labor force, total: 75,70 (2021)
  • Workforce with basic education (% of the workforce): 60,11 (2022)
  • Labor force with medium education (% of labor force): 1.402.844,00 (2023)
  • Number of poor cf. national poverty limits (% of the population): 0,10 (2021)
  • Proportion of the population with moderate or severe food insecurity (%): 5,70 (2021)
  • School enrolments, primary school (gross %): 95,56 (2022)
  • Youth unemployment, all young people (% of total labor force aged 15 - 24): 68,93 (2022)
  • Young people not in education, employment or training, total (% of all young people): 14,81 (2022)
  • Literacy/literacy, total adults (% of population over 15): 11,00 (2018)

    Spending

  • Household (and NPIS) consumption expenditure (US$): 25.953.850.019,30 (2022)
  • Electricity consumption (kWh per inhabitant): 2.032,16 (2014)
  • Inhabitants using the Internet (% of the population): 81,61 (2021)
  • Mobile subscriptions (per 100 people): 21,00 (2019)
  • Number of smokers, total (over 15 years): 29,40 (2020)
  • Alcohol consumption per capita (litres of pure alcohol, expected estimates, +15 years): 11,68 (2022)

Business and tourism

  • Employers, total (% of total labor force): 3,69 (2022)
  • New companies (number of registrations): 4,22 (2018)
  • New businesses (new registrations per 1,000 inhabitants aged 15 - 64): 12.532,00 (2020)
  • Listed companies, total: 99,18 (2020)
  • Business conditions (0 = lowest grade to 100 = highest grade): 1.821,00 (2021)
  • International tourism, number of arrivals: 66.900,00 (2020)
  • International tourism, number of departures: 49,94 (2022)
  • Railway lines (total route kilometers): 1.821,00 (2021)
  • Railways, number of passengers transported (million passenger-kilometres): 91,00 (2021)

Health

  • Hospital beds (per 1,000 inhabitants): 8,00 (2017)
  • Suicide rate, men (per 100,000 men): 12,70 (2021)
  • Nurses and midwives (per 1,000 inhabitants): 3,86 (2018)
  • Doctors (per 1,000 inhabitants): 2,15 (2021)
  • Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population aged 15 - 49): 251,17 (2022)

Facts Mongolia's economy

GDP and GNI

  • BNP (US$): 6,60 (2021)
  • GDP growth (annual %): 67,77 (2019)
  • GDP per capita (US$): 17.146.471.626,40 (2022)
  • GDP, KPP (US$): 5,03 (2022)
  • BNI (US$): 5.045,50 (2022)
  • GNI growth (annual %): 48.461.751.478,97 (2022)
  • Gross savings (% of GDP): 15.067.905.912,92 (2022)

Inflation, interest rates and consumer prices

  • Deposit rate (%): 8,51 (2020)
  • Lending rate (%): 15,15 (2022)
  • Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 35,31 (2022)
  • Consumer Price Index (2010 = 100): 251,17 (2022)

Trade and production

  • Trade (% of GDP): 83,73 (2022)
  • Vareeksport (US$): 7,12 (2022)
  • Vareimport (US$): 1.220.342.607,88 (2022)
  • Food exports (% of merchandise exports): 1,32 (2022)
  • Food imports (% of goods imports): 12,64 (2022)
  • Food Production Index (2004 - 2006 = 100): 157,87 (2022)
  • Index of animal production (2004 - 2006 = 100): 13,50 (2019)

Industry

  • Industry (including construction), value added (% of GDP): 8,78 (2022)
  • Industry (including construction), value added (US$): 24,63 (2022)
  • Industry, value added (% of GDP): 16,01 (2021)
  • Industry, value added (US$): 159,36 (2022)

Military

  • Armed forces, total: 18.000,00 (2020)
  • Military expenditure (% of GDP): 12.540.000.000,00 (2022)
  • Military Expenditure (US$): 8.704.000.000,00 (2022)

Others

  • Current health expenditure (% of GDP): 8,51 (2020)
  • Labor tax and contribution (% of company profit): 6.054.799.365,77 (2022)
  • Development Assistance (ODA) received per capita (US$): 0,60 (2022)
  • Social contributions (% of income): 118.357.804,46 (2022)