Facts about Haiti

Facts about Haiti

1. Pumpkin: Pumpkins have long played an important role in Haitian society; in 1807, Haiti’s then president, Henri Christophe, made pumpkins the cornerstone of the country’s currency, which meant that all pumpkins became the property of the state. The currency in Haiti today is called ‘Gourdes’, which means pumpkin

2. Voodoo: Voodoo is practiced today as a folk religion in Haiti – often alongside Christianity. Voodoo is a 6000-year-old religion that was recognized in 1996 on an equal footing with Christianity, Islam, etc.

3. Natural disasters: Throughout history, Haiti has been hit by a myriad of natural disasters such as hurricanes, cyclones, earthquake, torrential rains and flooding. Recent natural disasters include the 2010 earthquake (which killed at least 100,000 people) and 4 hurricanes in 2008

4. Cockfighting: Cockfighting is a traditional sport in Haiti. Roosters are fed raw meat and hot peppers soaked in rum to make them more aggressive and hardy. The winner of a single fight can bring in more than an average monthly income (around 67 dollars)

5. Population: The majority of Haiti’s current population is descended from slaves transported to the country from Africa in the past

Fact: Fact: Citadelle Laferrière is one of the largest forts in the world and is located in Haiti
Attribution: SPC Gibran Torres, United States Army – Wikipedia.org

Fact: Citadelle Laferrière is a huge mountaintop fortress in northern Haiti

 

6. Port-au-Prince: The name of Haiti’s capital, Port-au-Prince, means ‘Prince’s Port’ and comes from a French ship that was anchored in the city’s harbor. Port-au-Prince was founded in 1749 and today is home to around 950,000 inhabitants

7. Dictators: Haiti has long been a country characterized by dictatorship, unrest and poverty. Between 1804 and 1915, Haiti had more than 70 dictators!

8. Slave rebellion: In 1801, former slave Toussaint L’Ouverture (1743-1803) led nearly 500,000 Haitian slaves in the fight against the French colonialists. Their victory was the first successful slave rebellion and helped Haiti establish itself as the world’s first black republic

9. Flag: In 1803, Haiti’s first ruler, Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806), created the nation’s flag by ripping the white stripe from the French flag (which consists of three blue, white and red stripes) while proclaiming that he would “rip all white people out of the nation”. The remaining blue and red stripes represented the country’s black and mulatto population. Haiti’s coat of arms is found in the center of the flag

10. Mulatter: In the 18th century, Haitians developed extensive tables of genetic descent that divided the mulattos into hundreds of classifications of black and white. These ranged from the ‘Sacatra’, which was 7/8 black to several varieties of ‘Sangmeles’, which are only 1/16 black. Technically, a mulatto is a person who is half black and half white – but the term is used more flexibly today

Fact: The Presidential Palace in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake
MichelleWalz + Kevin McManus – Flickr.com

The presidential palace in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake

Geographic facts

  • Location: Haiti is located on the western side of the island of Hispaniola and covers about 1/3 of the island's total area (the remaining 2/3 in the east is the Dominican Republic). Haiti is located between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean
  • Country borders: Dominican Republic (360 km)
  • Coastline: 1,771 km
  • Climate: Tropical. Semi-dry in the east where trade winds are cut off by mountains
  • Landscape: Primarily mountain landscape
  • Lowest point: 0 m (Caribbean Sea)
  • Highest point: 2,680 m (Pic de la Selle)
  • Natural resources: Bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble and hydropower
  • Largest city: Port-au-Prince
  • Capital city: Port-au-Prince
  • Total area (square kilometers): 27.750,00 (2021)
  • Land areas (km2): 25.688,07 (2015)
  • Urban areas (km2): 1.326,10 (2015)
  • Agricultural land (km2): 17.950,00 (2021)
  • Agricultural area (% of total area): 65,13 (2021)
  • Forest area (% of land area): 12,49 (2021)
  • Plant species (higher), endangered: 93,00 (2018)
  • CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita): 0,28 (2020)

Demographic facts

Population

  • Population density (people per km2 total area): 2.987.455,00 (2023)
  • Population of largest city: 1,19 (2022)
  • Population growth (annual %): 11.584.996,00 (2022)
  • Population, total: 58,50 (2012)
  • Population growth in urban areas (annual %): 25,42 (2022)
  • Population in urban areas (% of total population): n/a
  • Population in rural areas (% of total population): 114,11 (1998)
  • Population growth in rural areas (annual %): 21,09 (2012)
  • Etniske grupper: 95% black, 5% mulatto and white
  • Sprog: French and Creole (both are official languages)
  • Religioner: Roman Catholics 80%, Protestants 16% (Baptists 10%, Pentecostals 4%, Adventists 1%, others 1%), none 1%, others 3%
  • Net immigration: 0,06 (2010)

Birth and death rates

  • Fertility rate, total (births per woman): 2,81 (2021)
  • Birth rate, gross (per 1,000 inhabitants): 23,50 (2021)
  • Teenage mothers (% of women aged 15-19 who have had children or are pregnant): 17,90 (1999)
  • Death rate, gross (per 1,000 people): 8,68 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, women (years): 60,40 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, men (years): 63,19 (2021)
  • Life expectancy at birth, all (years): 38.182,88 (2022)
  • Mortality caused by traffic accidents (per 100,000 inhabitants): 195,57 (2021)
  • Mortality, women (per 1,000 adult women): 297,68 (2021)
  • Mortality, male (per 1,000 adult males): 7,60 (2019)
  • Suicide rate, women (per 100,000 women): 11,80 (2019)
  • Mortality, infant (per 1,000 live births): -31.811,00 (2023)

Work, income and education

  • Wage earners, total (% of total labor force): n/a
  • Income share of the highest 10%: 31,20 (2012)
  • Income share of the lowest 10%: 2,10 (2012)
  • Unemployment, total (% of total labor force): 10,00 (2017)
  • Labor force, total: 66,12 (2021)
  • Workforce with basic education (% of the workforce): 54,81 (2012)
  • Labor force with medium education (% of labor force): 5.237.767,00 (2023)
  • Number of poor cf. national poverty limits (% of the population): 1,80 (2021)
  • Proportion of the population with moderate or severe food insecurity (%): 82,60 (2021)
  • School enrolments, primary school (gross %): 14,10 (2012)
  • Youth unemployment, all young people (% of total labor force aged 15 - 24): 2,66 (2022)
  • Young people not in education, employment or training, total (% of all young people): 7,70 (2020)
  • Literacy/literacy, total adults (% of population over 15): 4,00 (2018)

    Spending

  • Household (and NPIS) consumption expenditure (US$): 32.194.869.233,14 (2022)
  • Electricity consumption (kWh per inhabitant): 39,57 (2014)
  • Inhabitants using the Internet (% of the population): 38,95 (2021)
  • Mobile subscriptions (per 100 people): 18,80 (2019)
  • Number of smokers, total (over 15 years): 3,45 (2019)
  • Alcohol consumption per capita (litres of pure alcohol, expected estimates, +15 years): 58,82 (2022)

Business and tourism

  • Employers, total (% of total labor force): 0,70 (2022)
  • New companies (number of registrations): 0,40 (2018)
  • New businesses (new registrations per 1,000 inhabitants aged 15 - 64): 383,00 (2010)
  • Listed companies, total: 61,69 (2016)
  • Business conditions (0 = lowest grade to 100 = highest grade): 41,18 (2022)
  • International tourism, number of arrivals: 938.000,00 (2019)
  • International tourism, number of departures: 54,84 (2012)
  • Railway lines (total route kilometers): 41,18 (2022)
  • Railways, number of passengers transported (million passenger-kilometres): -0,86 (2022)

Health

  • Hospital beds (per 1,000 inhabitants): 0,71 (2013)
  • Suicide rate, men (per 100,000 men): 45,40 (2021)
  • Nurses and midwives (per 1,000 inhabitants): 0,24 (2018)
  • Doctors (per 1,000 inhabitants): 415,37 (2021)
  • Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population aged 15 - 49): 409,13 (2022)

Facts Haiti's economy

GDP and GNI

  • BNP (US$): 4,94 (2021)
  • GDP growth (annual %): 40,72 (2019)
  • GDP per capita (US$): 20.253.551.884,61 (2022)
  • GDP, KPP (US$): -1,68 (2022)
  • BNI (US$): 1.748,26 (2022)
  • GNI growth (annual %): 38.301.975.772,80 (2022)
  • Gross savings (% of GDP): 20.277.253.061,72 (2022)

Inflation, interest rates and consumer prices

  • Deposit rate (%): 4,10 (2020)
  • Lending rate (%): 33,98 (2022)
  • Inflation, consumer prices (annual %): 29,34 (2022)
  • Consumer Price Index (2010 = 100): 409,13 (2022)

Trade and production

  • Trade (% of GDP): 76,89 (2022)
  • Vareeksport (US$): 23,13 (2022)
  • Vareimport (US$): 4.684.387.918,05 (2022)
  • Food exports (% of merchandise exports): 15,46 (1997)
  • Food imports (% of goods imports): 26,10 (1981)
  • Food Production Index (2004 - 2006 = 100): 77,85 (2022)
  • Index of animal production (2004 - 2006 = 100): 12,40 (2019)

Industry

  • Industry (including construction), value added (% of GDP): -1,67 (2022)
  • Industry (including construction), value added (US$): 11,60 (2022)
  • Industry, value added (% of GDP): 13,35 (2021)
  • Industry, value added (US$): 102,16 (2022)

Military

  • Armed forces, total: 1.000,00 (2020)
  • Military expenditure (% of GDP): 1.282.000.000,00 (2022)
  • Military Expenditure (US$): 4.622.000.000,00 (2022)

Others

  • Current health expenditure (% of GDP): 4,10 (2020)
  • Labor tax and contribution (% of company profit): 5.942.622.614,32 (2022)
  • Development Assistance (ODA) received per capita (US$): 0,07 (2022)
  • Social contributions (% of income): 12.555.444,84 (2022)